HIV This Week
We are happy to present here a selection of scientific articles related to women and girls extracted from HIV This Week (link), a publication produced 26 times a year by the office of the Chief Scientific Adviser to UNAIDS.
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Canada / Prevention: Structural and Environmental Barriers to Condom Use Negotiation With Clients Among Female Sex Workers:Impli
Shannon and colleagues investigated the relationship between environmental-structural factors and condom-use negotiation between female sex workers and clients. They used baseline data from a 2006 Vancouver, British Columbia, community-based cohort of female sex workers, to map the clustering of hot spots for being pressured into unprotected sexual intercourse by a client and assess sexual HIV. The authors then used multivariate logistic modelling to estimate the relationship between environmental-structural factors and being pressured by a client into unprotected intercourse.
Thailand / Prevention-PMTCT: Association of Low CD4 Cell Count and Intrauterine Growth Retardation in Thailand
Each year, intrauterine growth retardation affects 20-30 million neonates worldwide, mostly in resource-limited settings. Increased perinatal and infant mortality has been associated with intrauterine growth retardation. Some studies have suggested that HIV infection could increase the risk of intrauterine growth retardation.
Science / Reproductive Health: HIV disease progression by hormonal contraceptive method: secondary analysis of a randomized tria
HIV-infected women need access to safe contraception. Stringer and colleagues hypothesized that women using depomedroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) contraception would have faster HIV disease progression than women using oral contraceptive pills and nonhormonal methods. In a previously reported trial, the authors randomized 599 HIVinfected women to the intrauterine device (IUD) or hormonal contraception. Women randomized to hormonal contraception chose between oral contraceptive pills and DMPA.
Paedriatic Outcomes: No relation between in-utero exposure to HAART and intrauterine growth retardation.
The use of highly active antiretroviral treatment during pregnancy is now standard care to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission in developed countries. There is controversy about its impact on low birth weight. Briand and colleagues set out to evaluate the impact of antiretroviral therapy during the pregnancy on birth weight, length, and head circumference.
Zimbabwe / Resistance: Circulating HIV type 1 drug resistance will have limited impact on the effectiveness of preexposure prophylaxis among young women in Zimbabwe
Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with antiretroviral drugs may prevent transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The objective of van de Vijver and colleagues was to predict whether PrEP, in the presence of circulating drug resistance, will reduce the risk of infection with HIV. They used risk equations to calculate the monthly risk of infection with HIV before and after the introduction of PrEP. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses were performed for 2 ranges of PrEP effectiveness (40%-60% and 60%-80%).
South Africa / Science: Disseminated bacille Calmette–Guérin disease in HIV-infected South African infants
The authors set out to determine the population-based incidence of disseminated bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG) disease in HIV-infected infants (aged less than 1 year) in a setting with a high burden of tuberculosis and HIV infection coupled with a well-functioning programme for the prevention of HIV infection in infants. The numerator, or number of new cases of disseminated BCG disease, was derived from multicentre surveillance data collected prospectively on infants with a confirmed HIV infection during 2004–2006.
Uganda / Science: Circumcision in HIV-infected men and its effect on HIV transmission to female partners in Rakai, Uganda: a randomised controlled trial.
Observational studies have reported an association between male circumcision and reduced risk of HIV infection in female partners. Wawer and colleagues set out to assess whether circumcision in HIV-infected men would reduce transmission of the virus to female sexual partners.
USA / Policy: Adding the female condom to the public health agenda on prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted infection
Legal barriers to conducting public health research on methods of protection for anal intercourse were lifted in the United States in 2003 when the US Supreme Court invalidated all state antisodomy laws. Although research funding has been available for the development of rectal microbicides, the female condom, which has already been approved for vaginal use, has not been evaluated for anal use. Although there is no evidence that the female condom is safe for anal intercourse, it has already been taken up for off-label use by some men who have sex with men.
An effective vaginal microbicide against sexual HIV transmission remains elusive, with requirements for adherence to appropriate application of effective, nontoxic products being a major deterrent.
South Africa / Violence: Integrated gender-based violence and HIV risk reduction intervention for South African men: results of
South Africa is in the midst of one of the world’s most devastating HIV epidemics and there is a well-documented association between violence against women and HIV transmission.