sexual and reproductive health
Reproductive health, which addresses the reproductive processes, functions and systems at all stages of life, is aimed at enabling men and women to have responsible, satisfying and safe sex lives, as well as the capacity and freedom to plan if, when and how often to have children.
The relationships between HIV and sexual and reproductive health are well recognized. The overwhelming majority of HIV infections are sexually transmitted or associated with pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding. Underlying social and economic factors such as poverty and gender inequality contribute to both HIV transmission and poor sexual and reproductive health. By linking initiatives for sexual and reproductive health and HIV multiplies opportunities for preventing and treating sexually transmitted infections including HIV, providing family planning and maternal and child health services, and providing treatment and care for people living with HIV.
Key concerns of reproductive health include the treatment and control of sexually transmitted infections that increase the vulnerability to HIV infection and the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of the virus. Another important focus for reproductive health services is adolescents, who have special needs for care and support during the transition to adulthood and the initiation of sexual relationships – needs that require an even more urgent response since the emergence of AIDS. Yet for a variety of reasons, the reproductive health of young people is particularly neglected and many millions lack the information, skills and equipment to prevent contracting or passing on HIV or other diseases or to avoid unwanted pregnancy.
In 1994, the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) outlined a Programme of Action (the Cairo Consensus) focused on empowering women and meeting people's needs for education and health, including reproductive health. Since then, the international community has actively developed and monitored a series of policies, strategies and actions to actualize the goals of the Cairo Consensus. Central to these policies is addressing the impact of HIV on individuals and on development overall.
The latest from the GCWA
1 Dec, 2009|
ATHENA - 10 reasons why criminalization of HIV exposure or transmission harms women
20 Nov, 2009|
An estimated 41 percent of Ugandan women who would like to stop having children have no access to family planning services HIV-positive women in western Uganda want fewer children than women not living with the virus, but often do not have access to family planning services, a new study reveals. The study of 421 women in the district of Kabarole found that the probability of HIV-positive women wanting to stop childbearing was 6.25 times greater than it was for HIV-negative individuals. “HIV-positive women tended to want fewer children than their HIV-negative counterparts mainly because they a
19 Nov, 2009|
Johannesburg - South African women are having fewer children, the SA Institute of Race Relations (SAIRR) said on Thursday.According to its latest South Africa Survey, there were an average of 2.7 live births per 1000 women between 2001 and 2006 and this was projected to decline to 2.4 between 2008 and 2011. Along with fewer births, there had also been an increase in the number of deaths from HIV/Aids. Almost half of all deaths in 2008 were HIV/Aids related, an increase from a third of all deaths in 2001.
15 Nov, 2009|
Prevention-microbicides: Safety and pharmacokinetics of dapivirine delivery from matrix and reservoir intravaginal rings to HIV-
Vaginal microbicides for the prevention of HIV transmission may be an important option for protecting women from infection. Incorporation of dapivirine, a lead candidate nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, into intravaginal rings (IVRs) for sustained mucosal delivery may increase microbicide product adherence and efficacy compared with conventional vaginal formulations. Twenty-four healthy HIV-negative women 18-35 years of age were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to dapivirine matrix intravaginal ring, dapivirine reservoir intravaginal ring, or placebo intravaginal ring.
15 Nov, 2009|
Prevention-Microbicides: Maraviroc concentrates in the cervicovaginal fluid and vaginal tissue of HIV-negative women
The authors compared single- and multiple-dose maraviroc exposures in cervicovaginal fluid (CVF) and vaginal tissue (VT) with blood plasma (BP) and quantified maraviroc protein binding in cervicovaginal fluid. In this open-label pharmacokinetic study of 12 HIV-negative women, 7 paired CVF and BP samples were collected over 12 hours after 1 maraviroc dose. Subjects then received maraviroc twice daily for 7 days. After the last dose, subjects underwent cervicovaginal fluid and blood plasma sampling as on day 1, with additional sampling during terminal elimination.
9 Nov, 2009|
Hay dos cosas que la ghanesa Kate Adoo-Adeku tiene claras: que "el sida no se combate sólo con medidas sanitarias. La educación es un factor clave", y que todavía no hay un método de protección pensado para las mujeres, aunque éstas son la mayoría de las infectadas por el VIH en el África subsahariana, la región del mundo que concentra a un 70% de los afectados. Y alrededor de esas dos ideas clave se mueve.
9 Nov, 2009|
GCWA partner / women and health : WHO calls for action beyond the health sector to improve the health of girls and women
Despite considerable progress in the past decades, societies continue to fail to meet the health care needs of women at key moments of their lives, particularly in their adolescent years and in older age, a WHO report has found. Launching the report, entitled Women and health: today's evidence tomorrow's agenda, WHO Director-General, Dr Margaret Chan called for urgent action both within the health sector and beyond to improve the health and lives of girls and women around the world, from birth to older age. "If women are denied a chance to develop their full human potential, including their p
9 Nov, 2009|
WHO Women and Health. Today's evidence, tomorrow's agenda
7 Nov, 2009|
KANPUR: The misconception of working women being more prone to HIV in comparison to housewives was recently proved wrong. Reports by the district health societies revealed that around 45 women in the city were detected as HIV positive during April to October, out of which 42 were housewives. Figures indicated that 19 (out of the total) housewives detected as HIV positive belonged to the age group 21-30 followed by 16 women in the age group 31-40.
26 Oct, 2009|
South Africa / Young people: Early coital debut and associated HIV risk factors among young women and men in South Africa
Young people in South Africa are at high risk of HIV infection. Because first sexual experiences may influence a young person’s HIV risk, a better understanding of coital debut is needed. Data from a nationally representative survey that included 7,692 sexually active South African youth aged 15-24 were used to assess characteristics related to sexual debut and to respondents’ first sexual partner.