sexual and reproductive health
Reproductive health, which addresses the reproductive processes, functions and systems at all stages of life, is aimed at enabling men and women to have responsible, satisfying and safe sex lives, as well as the capacity and freedom to plan if, when and how often to have children.
The relationships between HIV and sexual and reproductive health are well recognized. The overwhelming majority of HIV infections are sexually transmitted or associated with pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding. Underlying social and economic factors such as poverty and gender inequality contribute to both HIV transmission and poor sexual and reproductive health. By linking initiatives for sexual and reproductive health and HIV multiplies opportunities for preventing and treating sexually transmitted infections including HIV, providing family planning and maternal and child health services, and providing treatment and care for people living with HIV.
Key concerns of reproductive health include the treatment and control of sexually transmitted infections that increase the vulnerability to HIV infection and the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of the virus. Another important focus for reproductive health services is adolescents, who have special needs for care and support during the transition to adulthood and the initiation of sexual relationships – needs that require an even more urgent response since the emergence of AIDS. Yet for a variety of reasons, the reproductive health of young people is particularly neglected and many millions lack the information, skills and equipment to prevent contracting or passing on HIV or other diseases or to avoid unwanted pregnancy.
In 1994, the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) outlined a Programme of Action (the Cairo Consensus) focused on empowering women and meeting people's needs for education and health, including reproductive health. Since then, the international community has actively developed and monitored a series of policies, strategies and actions to actualize the goals of the Cairo Consensus. Central to these policies is addressing the impact of HIV on individuals and on development overall.
The latest from the GCWA
26 Oct, 2009|
South Africa / Young people: Early coital debut and associated HIV risk factors among young women and men in South Africa
Young people in South Africa are at high risk of HIV infection. Because first sexual experiences may influence a young person’s HIV risk, a better understanding of coital debut is needed. Data from a nationally representative survey that included 7,692 sexually active South African youth aged 15-24 were used to assess characteristics related to sexual debut and to respondents’ first sexual partner.
26 Oct, 2009|
USA / Violence: Intimate partner violence perpetration, standard and gendered STI/HIV risk behaviour, and STI/HIV diagnosis among a clinic-based sample of men.
The estimated one in three women worldwide victimized by intimate partner violence consistently demonstrate elevated STI/HIV prevalence; abusive male partners’ risky sexual behaviours and subsequent infection are implicated.
14 Oct, 2009|
El retrasar el inicio de las relaciones sexuales para prevenir el contagio del VIH, será el mensaje que llevarán los líderes religiosos a los adolescentes y jóvenes de Nicaragua, afirmó el doctor José Medrano, secretario Técnico de la Comisión Nicaragüense del Sida, Conisida. Medrano sostuvo una reunión con la Organización basadas en la Fe, para fortalecer el vínculo con la juventud, quienes están más expuestos a contraer la enfermedad.
1 Sep, 2009|
South Africa / Reproductive Health: Fertility Intentions and Reproductive Health Care Needs of People Living with HIV in Cape To
Tailoring sexual and reproductive health services to meet the needs of people living with the human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV) is a growing concern but there are few insights into these issues where HIV is most prevalent.
1 Sep, 2009|
SRH-HIV linkages: evidence, review and recommendations
24 Aug, 2009|
Women are limited in their ability to negotiate the use of the male condom, even in the face of all the forms that HIV/AIDS epidemic has moved into, a form in which married women and women in stable relationships are at the most risk.
11 Aug, 2009|
Between 28 percent and 33 percent of women attending antenatal clinics in South Africa are HIV positive HIV is the main cause of death among pregnant women in Johannesburg, South Africa's most populous city, according to a five-year study of maternal mortality at one of the city's largest public hospitals. The study, published in the August 2009 issue of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, found that the maternal mortality ratio was more than six times higher in HIV-positive women (776 deaths per 100,000 births) than in HIV-negative women (124 per 100,000).
1 Aug, 2009|
Science / Reproductive Health: HIV disease progression by hormonal contraceptive method: secondary analysis of a randomized tria
HIV-infected women need access to safe contraception. Stringer and colleagues hypothesized that women using depomedroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) contraception would have faster HIV disease progression than women using oral contraceptive pills and nonhormonal methods. In a previously reported trial, the authors randomized 599 HIVinfected women to the intrauterine device (IUD) or hormonal contraception. Women randomized to hormonal contraception chose between oral contraceptive pills and DMPA.
6 Apr, 2009|
In preparation for the June UN High Level Meeting on AIDS, for the first time in the 30 year history of AIDS, women from around the world to speak to the successes, challenges, and key lessons learned. Five key priorities were identified through the consultations: 1: Inclusive and holistic prevention, treatment, care, and support for women in all of their diversity 2: Solidarity 3: Gender equality 4: Safety 5: Education, including sexuality education Documents To read a global summary of the consultation, read the global priorities.pdf Summary fact sheets regional priorities - as
7 Feb, 2009|
La Habana (PL). La mitad de las personas que viven con el VIH en todo el mundo son mujeres.